Comics as Social Media Criticism of Community Activities Restrictions Enforcement Due to COVID-19 in Indonesia
The Government's policy in dealing with COVID-19 cases, namely in the implementation of Community Activities Restrictions Enforcement (PPKM) with various inconsistent rules, has triggered criticism from the public, especially comic artists. Through Instagram, PPKM-themed comics are spread and getting much attention from the public. This study aimed to find out how the use of comics as social criticism in the implementation of PPKM. This study applied a critical metaphor analysis in analyzing the metaphors that appear in voicing the aspirations of opinions and social criticism. The sample selection was based on the comics with the highest engagement from the specified theme. The results showed that 50 comics were criticizing the PPKM policy from 20 accounts. The creators raised six significant metaphors, including PPKM as a prison, PPKM as many types of models, PPKM as a form of greed, Covid-19 is described in social class, the Government is heroes PPKM as a form of arrogance. Criticism with satire and humour has received many likes and comments, increasing the sense of social solidarity. The form of criticism on Instagram cannot be underestimated because it has great power to change government policies.
Keywords: Critical Metaphor Analysis; Instagram; Political Comics; PPKM; COVID-19
Andryanto, S. (2021, Juli 23). Gonta-ganti Istilah Penanganan Covid-19: PSBB Hingga Terkini PPKM Level 4. Diambil kembali dari Tempo: https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1486390/gonta-ganti-istilah-penanganan-covid-19-psbb-hingga-terkini-ppkm-level-4/full&view=ok
Ani. (2021, Februari 9). Indonesia Expands List Of Foreign Arrivals Allowed To Enter Country. Diambil kembali dari Business World: http://www.businessworld.in/article/Indonesia-expands-list-of-foreign-arrivals-allowed-to-enter-country/09-02-2021-375721/
Becker, A. B. (2020). Applying mass communication frameworks to study humor's impact: advancing the study of political satire. Annals of the International Communication Association, 1-16.
Bounegru, L., & Forceville, C. (2011). Metaphors in editorial cartoons representing the global financial crisis. Visual Communication, 209–229.
Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The lancet, 912-920.
Caliendo, S. M. (2020). Race, media and popular culture. Dalam S. M. Caliendo, & C. D. McIlwain, The Routledge companion to race and ethnicity (hal. 78-86). New York: Routledge.
Callender, B., Obuobi, S., Czerwiec, M. K., & Williams, I. (2020). COVID-19, comics, and the visual culture of contagion. The Lancet, 1061-1063.
Darmawan, F. (2016). Modalitas Visual Kartunis dalam Kartun Politik Online Pascareformasi. Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi, 109-122.
Dhami, M. K., Weiss-Cohen, L., & Ayton, P. (2020). Are people experiencing the 'pains of imprisonment'during the Covid-19 lockdown? Frontiers in Psychology, 3179.
Djalante, R., Lassa, J., Setiamarga, D., Sudjatma, A., Indrawan, M., Haryanto, B. .., & Warsilah, H. (2020). Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Progress in Disaster Science, 100091.
El Refaie, E. (2009). Metaphor in political cartoons: Exploring audience responses. Dalam C. Forceville, & E. Urios-Aparisi, Multimodal metaphor (hal. 173-196). Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Fallianda, F., Astiti, R. Y., & Hanim, Z. A. (2018). Analyzing Humor in Newspaper Comic Strips Using Verbal-Visual Analysis. Lingua Cultura, 383-388.
Ghilzai, S. A. (2020). Exploring Power Politics and Hegemonic Struggles through Semiotic Analysis of Political Cartoons. European Academic Research, 1354-1372.
Habersaat, K. B., & Jackson, C. (2020). Understanding vaccine acceptance and demand—and ways to increase them. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-Gesundheitsforschung-Gesundheitsschutz, 32-39.
Harapan, H., Wagner, A. L., Yufika, A., Winardi, W., Anwar, S., Gan, A. K., . . . Mudatsir, M. (2020). Frontiers in public health. Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Southeast Asia: a cross-sectional study in Indonesia, 1-8.
Ho, M. T., Progler, J., & Vuong, Q. H. (2021). An Anatomy of Satirical Cartoons in Contemporary Vietnam: Political Communication and Representations of Systemic Corruption in a One-party State. Asian Studies Review, 1-18.
Hossain, A., Ali, M., Khan, H. R., & Ahsan, G. (2020). Mental well-being in the Bangladeshi healthy population during nationwide lockdown over COVID-19: an online cross-sectional survey. medRxiv, 1-18.
Islam, T., Pitafi, A. H., Arya, V., Wang, Y., Akhtar, N., Mubarik, S., & Xiaobei, L. (2021). Panic buying in the COVID-19 pandemic: A multi-country examination. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 102357.
Jedwab, R., Khan, A. M., Russ, J., & Zaveri, E. D. (2021). Epidemics, pandemics, and social conflict: Lessons from the past and possible scenarios for COVID-19. World Development, 105629.
Kulkarni, A. (2017). Internet meme and Political Discourse: A study on the impact of internet meme as a tool in communicating political satire. Journal of Content, Community & Communication Amity School of Communication, 13-17.
Ma, T. H., & Gao, Y. (2020). Multimodal Metaphors Construction and Critical Analysis of American Political Cartoons: The Case of the U.S.-China Trade Conflict. Foreign Language Research, 25-32.
Musolff, A. (2016). Political Metaphor Analysis: Discourse and Scenarios. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Noviasri, R. (2019). Kerja Kode Dalam Meme Soeharto. Jurnal Desain Indonesia, 7-14.
Permana, Y. R. (2020). Analysis of Political Cartoon in Jakarta Post E-Paper. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 6-20.
Ramadhani, N., & Putra, R. D. (2017). Komik Strip Sebagai Media Kritik Sosial : Studi pada Akun Instagram @Komikin_ ajah. Journal of Strategic Communication, 26–38.
Rutherford, J. (2020). Latinx political cartooning during the COVID-19 global pandemic: coping and processing via Lalo Alcaraz's and Eric J. Garcia's social artivism. Prose Studies, 228-252.
Sani, K. A., Budiarsa, M., Laksana, I. K., & Simpen, I. W. (2021). Discourse Structure of Covid 19 Edition Cartoon: Critical Discourse Analysis. The International Journal of Social Sciences World (TIJOSSW), 51-64.
Sharun, K., Rahman, C. F., Haritha, C. V., Jose, B., Tiwari, R., & Dhama, K. (2020). Covid-19 vaccine acceptance: Beliefs and barriers associated with vaccination among the general population in india. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Science, 1-9.
Silaški, N., & Đurović, T. (2019). The journey metaphor in Brexit-related political cartoons. Discourse, Context & Media, 100318.
Skoric, M. M., Zhu, Q., & Pang, N. (2016). Social media, political expression and participation in Confucian Asia. Chinese Journal of Communication, 331–347.
Suherman, A. (2020). Users Perception of Social Media on Political Satire in Political Memes in Indonesia. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 523-530.
Suprayuni, D., & Juwariyah, A. (2019). Humor Dan Satire Kartun Media Massa Sebagai Komunikasi Visual Di Era Disrupsi. Avant Garde, 187-202.
Tsao, S. F., Chen, H., Tisseverasinghe, T., Yang, Y., Li, L., & Butt, Z. A. (2020). What social media told us in the time of COVID-19: a scoping review. The Lancet Digital Health, 175-194.
Wahid, U., Usino, W., Vera, N., Hardjianto, M., & Budiyanto, U. (2021). Komunikasi Budaya Kebudiluhuran melalui Kebijakan Inovasi Teknologi di Masa Pandemi COVID-19. Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi, 108-126.
Wang, Y. (2021). The Metaphors and Its Critical Analysis in COVID-19-Related Cartoons. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 539-554.
Yoshizaki, H. T., de Brito Junior, I., Hino, C. M., Aguiar, L. L., & Pinheiro, M. C. (2020). Relationship between panic buying and per capita income during COVID-19. Sustainability, 1-14.
Copyright (c) 2021 Vizcardine Audinovic, Rio Satria Nugroho
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Muharrik: Jurnal Dakwah dan Sosial allow the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and allow the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions, also the owner of the commercial rights to the article is the author.