Religious Behavior of Indonesian Muslims as Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic

  • Mohammad Hidayaturrahman Universitas Wiraraja, Madura, Indonesia
  • Husamah Husamah Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia
  • Sudarman Sudarman Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol, Padang, Indonesia
  • Fitri Yanti Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan, Lampung, Indonesia
  • Ita Rahmania Kusumawati Universitas Hasyim Asy’ari, Jombang, Indonesia
Keywords: Covid-19, Indonesian Muslims, mass organization, religious elite, religious behavior


Covid-19 has become a world pandemic, and Indonesia is among the worse cases. Problems that arise are faced by all parties, including religious elites as well as laypeople. This study was conducted to describe how Muslims in Indonesia responded to and tried to cope with the Covid-19 pandemic. The study uses descriptive qualitative methods to collect data by observation, in-depth interview by phone, and online searching documents. From the research conducted, Islamic mass organizations have a relatively similar opinion that limits religious activities supported by various religious arguments. As for laypeople’s behavior, most are the same as mass organizations and Islamic leaders; very few have different behaviors. In anticipation of the virus spreading, most of them restricted religious activities in full by closing down the mosque and stopping public prayers. Few remained active as before the Covid-19 pandemic.

Covid-19 telah menjadi pandemi dunia, dan Indonesia termasuk di antara kasus terparah. Permasalahan yang muncul dihadapi semua pihak, baik elit agama maupun awam. Kajian ini dilakukan untuk mendeskripsikan bagaimana umat Islam di Indonesia menanggapi dan berusaha mengatasi pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dengan pengumpulan data melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam melalui telepon, dan pencarian dokumen secara online. Dari penelitian yang dilakukan, ormas Islam memiliki pendapat yang relatif sama yaitu membatasi kegiatan keagamaan yang didukung oleh berbagai dalil keagamaan. Adapun perilaku orang awam, sebagian besar sama dengan ormas dan tokoh Islam; sangat sedikit yang memiliki perilaku berbeda. Untuk mengantisipasi penyebaran virus, sebagian besar dari mereka membatasi kegiatan keagamaan secara penuh dengan menutup masjid dan menghentikan sholat umum. Beberapa tetap aktif seperti sebelum pandemi Covid-19.


Download data is not yet available.


Acevedo, Alma. “A Personalistic Appraisal of Maslow’s Needs Theory of Motivation: From ‘Humanistic’ Psychology to Integral Humanism.” Journal of Business Ethics 148, no. 4 (2018): 741–63.

Adam, Aulia. “Sebaran Maut COVID-19 Dua Seminar Di Bogor: Pemda Sigap Pusat Gagap.” Tirto.Id, 2020.

Adam, David. “Modelling the Pandemic: The Simulations Driving the World’s Response to COVID-19.” Nature 580, no. April (2020): 316–18.

Adelayanti, Natasa. “UGM Masters Predict the Spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia Stopped at the End of May 2020,” 2020.

Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A., and Ziad A. Memish. “The Hajj 2019 Vaccine Requirements and Possible New Challenges.” Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 9, no. 3 (2019): 147–52.

Azwar, Asrudin, and Musa Maliki. “Covid-19, Agama, Dan Sains.” GEOTIMES, 2020.

Banerjee, Debanjan. “How COVID-19 Is Overwhelming Our Mental Health.” Nature India. India, March 2020.

Birdwhistell, Ray L. : “: Science and Human Behavior . B. F. Skinner.” American Anthropologist 56, no. 5 (1954): 898–99.

Bruinessen, Martin Van. “Indonesian Muslims and Their Place in the Larger World of Islam.” Indonesia Rising: The Repositioning of Asia’s Third Giant, 2012, 117–40.

Cao, Wenjun, Ziwei Fang, Guoqiang Hou, Mei Han, Xinrong Xu, Jiaxin Dong, and Jianzhong Zheng. “The Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Epidemic on College Students in China.” Psychiatry Research, 2020, 112934.

Catania, A. Charles. “The Operant Behaviorism of B. F. Skinner.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7, no. 4 (1984): 473–75.

CNN Indonesia TV Channel. “KH Abdullah Gymnastiar Aired on March 26, 2020.,” 2020.

Ebrahim, Shahul H., and Ziad A. Memish. “COVID-19: Preparing for Superspreader Potential among Umrah Pilgrims to Saudi Arabia.” The Lancet 395, no. 10227 (2020): e48.

Fang, Wei Ta, Eric Ng, Ching Ming Wang, and Ming Lin Hsu. “Normative Beliefs, Attitudes, and Social Norms: People Reduce Waste as an Index of Social Relationships When Spending Leisure Time.” Sustainability (Switzerland) 9, no. 10 (2017).

Florida, Richard. “What We Know about Density and Covid-19’s Spread.” CityLab, 2020.

Geher, Glenn. “Corona Viewed from Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” Psychology Today, 2020.

Ghofur, Oktaful. “Konsep Aktualisasi Diri Abraham H. Maslow Dan Korelasinya Dalam Membentuk Kepribadian (Analisis Bimbingan Dan Konseling Islam).” Fakultas Dakwah Institut Agama Islam Negeri Walisongo Semarang, 2006.

Goddard, Murray J. “B. F. Skinner’s Science and Human Behavior: Some Further Consequences.” Review of General Psychology 21, no. 3 (2017): 276–80.

Graham, George. “Behaviorism.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University Press, 2019.

Horn, Michael B. “COVID-19’s Long-Term Impacts on Education in 2020 and Beyond.” EdSurge. March 2020.

Kenrick, Douglads. “Renovating the Pyramid of Built upon Ancient Foundations.” Perspect Psychol Sci 5, no. 3 (2011): 292–314.

Komninos, Andreas. “Self-Actualization: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” Interaction Design Foundation, 2020.

Koocher, Gerald P., and Patricia Keith-Spiegel. “‘What Should I Do?’ Ethical Risks, Making Decisions, and Taking Action.” Courses for Mental Health Professionals, 2019.

Laland, Kevin N., and Luke Rendell. “Social Learning: Theory.” Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, 2019.

Leary, Mark R. “Emotional Responses to Interpersonal Rejection.” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 17, no. 4 (2015): 435–41.

Li, Sijia, Yilin Wang, Jia Xue, Nan Zhao, and Tingshao Zhu. “The Impact of Covid-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 6 (2020).

Li, Taisheng, Hongzhou Lu, and Wenhong Zhang. “Clinical Observation and Management of COVID-19 Patients.” Emerging Microbes & Infections 9, no. 1 (2020): 687–90.

Marshall, Katherine, and Sally Smith. “Religion and Ebola: Learning from Experience.” The Lancet 386, no. 10005 (2015): e24–25.

McLeod, Saul. “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” Simply Psychology, 2020.

Mearns, Jack. “The Social Learning Theory of Julian B. Rotter.” American Psychologist 37, no. 4 (1982): 396–410.

Morris, Jake, Mariella Marzano, Norman Dandy, and Liz O’Brien. “Theories and Models of Behaviour and Behaviour Change.” Forestry, Sustainable Behaviours and Behaviour Change: Theories, 2012, 1–27.

Murdianto, Deny, and Dwi Santoso. “Sosialisasi Persiapan Pembelajaran Di Masa New Normal Bagi Guru SMK Di Kota Tarakan.” Amalee: Indonesian Journal of Community Research and Engagement 2, no. 1 (2021): 53–62.

Najwa Shihab YouTube Channel. “‘Benarkah Corona Tentara Allah?: Shihab & Shihab.’, 22 Mar. 2020.” 2020, n.d.

Permani, Risti. “The Presence of Religious Organisations, Religious Attendance and Earnings: Evidence from Indonesia.” Journal of Socio-Economics 40, no. 3 (2011): 247–58.

Prihatin, Intan. “73 Jemaah Masjid Jami Tamansari Kebon Jeruk Positif Corona Covid19 News Liputan6,” April 2020.

Rianti, Angelina, Agnes E. Novenia, Alvin Christopher, Devi Lestari, and Elfa K. Parassih. “Ketupat as Traditional Food of Indonesian Culture.” Journal of Ethnic Foods 5, no. 1 (2018): 4–9.

Rizal, Fitra, and Haniatul Mukaromah. “Filantropi Islam Solusi Atas Masalah Kemiskinan Akibat Pandemi Covid-19.” Al-Manhaj: Jurnal Hukum Dan Pranata Sosial Islam 3, no. 1 (2021): 35–66.

Sebayang, Rehia. “Efek Tabligh Akbar, Kasus Covid-19 Di Malaysia Bertambah 190.” CNBC Indonesia. March 2020.

Setyawan, Agus. “Dakwah Yang Menyelamatkan: Memaknai Ulang Hakikat Dan Tujuan Da’wah Islamiyah.” Al-Adabiya: Jurnal Kebudayaan Dan Keagamaan 15, no. 02 (2020): 189–99.

Shen, Ye, and Changwei Li. “Airborne Transmission of COVID-19 : Epidemiologic Evidence from Two Outbreak Investigations,” no. April (2020).

Shereen, Muhammad Adnan, Suliman Khan, Abeer Kazmi, Nadia Bashir, and Rabeea Siddique. “COVID-19 Infection: Origin, Transmission, and Characteristics of Human Coronaviruses.” Journal of Advanced Research 24 (2020): 91–98.

Shim, Eunha, Amna Tariq, Wongyeong Choi, Yiseul Lee, and Gerardo Chowell. “Transmission Potential and Severity of COVID-19 in South Korea.” International Journal of Infectious Diseases 93 (2020): 339–44.

Souders, Beata. “Motivation and What Really Drives Human Behavior.” Positive Psychology, 2020.

Soumaré, Marième, and Jules Crétois. “What Coronavirus Is Changing for Muslims.” Theafricareport, 2020.

Stoyanov, Stoyan. “A Theory of Human Motivation.” A Theory of Human Motivation, 2017, 1–87.

Sub Direktorat Kemasjidan Direktorat Urusan Agama Islam dan Pembinaan Syariah Direktorat Jenderal Bimas Islam Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia. Buku Panduan Sistem Informasi Masjid (SIMAS) Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia, 2015.

Sudjatma, Aruminingsih, Mochamad Indrawan, Muhammad Sabaruddin Sinapoy, Irina Rafliana, Susanti Djalante, Lalu Adi Gunawan, Rafael Anindito, and I Gusti Ayu Surtiari. “Of.” Progress in Disaster Science, no. march (2020): 100091.

Ustadz Abdul Somad Official YouTube Channel. “‘BAGAIMANA SIKAP UAS TERHADAP SITUASI WABAH CORONA ? | Ustadz Prof. Abdul Somad, Lc., MA., Ph.D.’, 19 Mar. 2020,” n.d.

Vahdat, Amir, and Jon Gambrell. “Saudi Officials Ban Pilgrimages to Mecca over COVID-19.” Times. March 2020.

Vargas, E. A. “B. F. Skinner’s Theory of Behavior.” European Journal of Behavior Analysis 18, no. 1 (2017): 2–38.

Venugopalan, O. “Maslow’s Theory of Motivation: Its Relevance and Application among Non-Managerial Employees of Selected Public and Private Sector Undertakings in Kerala.” Education + Training, 2007, 37–60.

Warisno, Andi. “Tradisi Tahlilan Upaya Menyambung Silaturahmi.” Ri’ayah 02, no. 02 (2017): 69–79.

WHO. “Syrian Arab Republic.” Definitions, no. 02 (2020).

World Health Organization. “Practical Considerations and Recommendations for Religious Leaders and Faith-Based Communities in the Context of COVID-19.” Interim Guidance. Geneva, Switzerland, 2020.

Yong, Clement. “MOH Identifying 95 Singaporeans at Religious Gathering in Malaysia after Covid-19 Cases Confirmed.” The Straits Times. March 2020.

How to Cite
Hidayaturrahman, M., Husamah, H., Sudarman, S., Yanti, F., & Kusumawati, I. (2021). Religious Behavior of Indonesian Muslims as Responses to the Covid-19 Pandemic. Al-Adabiya: Jurnal Kebudayaan Dan Keagamaan, 16(1), 1-14.
Abstract views: 290 , PDF (English) downloads: 53